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Today we are going to give you information about computer history, before this, what is a computer ? You were given complete information about it, you should also read it and increase more information about computer. Let us now read the history of computer.
Development of Computer: Computer is such a man-made machine that has changed the way we work, live, play etc. It has touched every aspect of our lives in one way or the other. This incredible invention is the computer itself. In the last almost four decades, it has changed the way of living and working of our society. It has started from the wooden avacas to the latest high speed microprocessor.
History of Computer
Next we will know about the development of computer from the invention of abacus used in ancient times to the first generation of computer :
In ancient times avacus was used (to calculate). Abacus is a device used for arithmetic calculations. The calculation is done by the beads threaded into the strings. It was invented in China.
2. Pascal Calculator or Pascaline:
The first mechanical calculator was built in 1645 by the French mathematician Blaise Pascal. Inter locking gears were used in that calculator, which represented the numbers 0 to 9. It was only capable of doing addition or subtraction. Hence it was also called Adding Machine.
3. Analytical Engine:
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Automated Weaving Loom. In this a metal plate was punched through and which was able to control the weaving of the cloth. In 1820, Charles Babbage, an English inventor, created the Difference Engine and later the Analytical Engine. The first computer prototype was built using the concept of Charles Babbage. For this reason Chal Babbage is called ‘Father of Computer’.
Despite ten years of hard work, he was not completely successful. In 1842, Lady Lavelace translated a paper LF Menabrea on the Analytical Engine from Italian to English. Augusta wrote the first demonstration program and his contribution of binary arithmetic was used by John von Neumann to develop the modern computer. That’s why Augusta is called ‘the first programmer’ and ‘inventor of the binary system’.
4. Herman Hollerth and Punch Cards:
Around the year 1880, Hollerth created the punch card, which was similar to today’s computer card. He also invented the Hallarth 80 column code and the Census Tabulator.
5. First electronic computer- ENIAC (First electronic computer-ENIAC):
In 1942, H Icon of Harvard University built a computer. This computer Mark 1 was the prototype of today’s computer. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrated and Calculator) was created in 1946 during the Second World War. Which was the first fully electronic computer.
6. Stored Program Concept-EDSAC:
The stored program is being used in processing, it should be stored in the computer and according to the concept operating instructions and data which should be transformed at the time of execution of the program. The EDSAC computer was developed at the University of Cambridge, incorporating the stored program concept. It was capable of storing a sequence of instructions in the computer and was equivalent to the first computer program.
7. UNIVAC-I (UNIVAC-I):
It is also called Universal Automatic Computer. This was the first computer available for commercial use in 1951. It contained the characteristics of the first generation of computers.
|Development||The year||Key Facts|
|Abacus||3000-2000||first mechanical calculator|
|Pascal calculator||1645||The first machine capable of doing addition, subtraction and counting.|
|jacquard weaving loom||1801||A metal plate with a punch hole was used to control the weaving pattern.|
|Babbage Analytical Engine||1834-1871||attempt to build the first general purpose computer; But this was not possible during Babbage’s lifetime.|
|Harman Tabulating Machine||1887-1896||Codes and devices were created to punch the data into the card and tabulate the stored data.|
|Howard Aiken Mark 1||1937-1944||Electromechanical computers were created, in which punch paper tape was used for data collection.|
|ENIAC||1943-1950||The first fully electronic computing device in which the program was permanently included.|
|Von Neumann Stored Program Concept||1945-1952||The concept of storing instructions and data in the computer’s memory was developed. Beginning to code data and instructions into binary.|
|Adjack (EDSAC)||1946-1952||The first computer that was capable of storing information and instructions in its memory.|
|UNIBAC-1||195154||The first computer that was commercially available.|
Generation of Computer
The purpose of developing different generations of computers has been to make computers that are cheap, small, fast and reliable.
First Generation Computer 1942-1955
Unibach I was the first commercial computer. This machine was developed for military and scientific use. Vacuum tubes were used in this. They were larger in size and produced more heat. In this, all the instructions and information were stored in the computer in the form of 0 and 1 and machine language was used in it. Punch cards were used for collection. Examples- ENIAC, UNIVAC and Mark-1 are examples of this. The use of vacuum tubes also had some drawbacks. The vacuum tube took time to heat up and after heating produced a lot of heat, which required the use of expensive air-conditioning systems to keep it cool, and consumed a large amount of electricity.
Second Generation Computer 1955-1964
In this generation of computers, instead of vacuum tubes, small transistors were used. Magnetic cores were used to represent data in computers. Magnetic discs and tapes were used to store the data. The magnetic disk was covered with a layer of iron oxide. Their speed and storage capacity were also fast. During this time the use of computers started in business and industry and a new programming language was developed.
Third Generation Computers Third Generation Computers 1965-1974
Continuous technological development in electronics led to a reduction in the size of the computer, and the ability to work at a faster rate. The use of Integrated Circuit (IC) started in place of third generation computer transistors, which was developed by J. s. Kilvi (JS Kilbi). Initially LSI (Large Scale Integration) was used, in which a large number of ICs (Integrated Circuits) or transistors were used on a single silicon chip. The use of RAM (Random Access Memory) increased the storage capacity of magnetic tapes and disks. Time sharing developed in the computers used by the people, by which more than one user could simultaneously use the computer’s resource. Hardware and software started to be found separately so that the user could get the software as per his requirement.
Fourth Generation Computer-1975-up till now
In the fourth generation computers, VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) and ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) were used instead of LSIIC in which about millions of things could be stored in a single chip. The use of VLSI technology led to the creation of microprocessors, which reduced the size of the computer and increased the capacity. Microprocessors were used not only in computers but in many other products; For example, semiconductor memory was used in place of magnetic discs and tapes in vehicles, sewing machines, microwave ovens, electronic games, etc. The increase in RAM capacity saved time and made the work faster. During this time the development of GUI (Graphical User Interface) made the computer easier to use. MS-DOS, MS-Windows and Apple Mac OS operating systems and ‘C’ language were developed. The high level language was standardized so that the program could be run on all computers.
The Fifth Generation Computer-At present
In the fifth generation computer, VLSI was replaced by ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) and it was possible to perform millions of calculations with a single chip. The compact disc was developed for storage. The Internet, e-mail and the World Wide Wave (www) developed. Very small and fast working computers were developed. Programming complexity reduced. An attempt was made to develop Artificial Intelligence so that the computer can make decisions according to the situation. Portable PC and Desktop PC revolutionized the field of computer and it is being used in every walk of life.
Features of all computer generation
Features of first generation of computer
- The use of vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.
- Use of magnetic drum as primary internal storage.
- Limited main storage capacity.
- Slow speed input-output.
- Low level programming language, machine language, assembly language.
- Discomfort in heat control.
- Uses- For peril processing and record keeping.
- Example- IBM 650 UNIVAC
Features of 2nd generation of computer
- Starting the use of transistors.
- Use of magnetic core as primary internal storage.
- Increase in main storage capacity.
- fast input output
- High Level Language (COBOL, Fartran)
- Size and heat reduction.
- fast and reliable
- Bench Oriented Uses- Billing, Payroll Processing, Updation of Inventory File.
- Example- IBM 1401 Honey well 200 CDC 1604.
Features of 3rd generation of computer
- Integrated chip access |
- Magnetic core and solid state used as main storage (SSI and MSI)
- More Flexible Input-Output.
- Fast, small, reliable.
- Extensive use of high level language.
- Remote Processing and Time Sharing System, Multi Programming
- Software available to control input output.
- Uses – Airline Reservation System, Credit Card Billing, Market Forecasting.
- Example- IBM System / 360, NCR 395, Burrough B6500
Features of 4th generation of computer
- Use of VLSI and ULSI.
- high and high capacity storage
- A compatibility between devices from different hardware manufacturers so that the consumer is not tied to a single vendor.
- Increase in the use of mini computers.
- Introduction of microprocessor and mini computer.
- Uses – Electronic funds transfer, commercial production and personal
- Example- IBM PC-XT, Apple
Features of 5th generation of computer
- Storage of optical discs.
- The development of the Internet, e-mail and www.
- Very small in size, fast and easy to use plug and play.
- Usage – In using the Internet, multimedia.
- Example- IBM Notebook, Pentium PC, Super Computer etc.
Special Purpose & General Purpose Computers
1.Special Purpose Computer :
Special Purpose Computers are used to solve a particular and specific type of difficulty. Such systems are highly effective for a particular use. Example- Automatic Traffic Control System, Automatic Aircraft Landing System etc.
2. General Purpose Computer:
They are not made for any particular purpose. They are capable of removing more than one difficulty and by changing a few programs or instructions, different tasks can be performed. They are used from simple accounting to complex simulation and forecasting.
Computer Classification on working System
1. Digital Computer:
In digital computers, data is represented as an electric pulse. Which is denoted by the count (0 or 1). A good example of this is the digital clock. Their speed is fast and it can do millions of calculations per second. Binary system is used in modern digital computers.
2. Analog Computer:
It uses the analog form of electricity. Its speed is slow. Examples of analog instruments are voltmeters and barometers.
3. Hybrid Computer:
It is a mixture of digital and analog. In this, the input and output are in analog form but the processing is done in digital form. These include the use of analog to digital converter (ADC) and digital to analog converter (DAC).
Computer Classification on size
1. Mainframe Computer:
These machines are characterized by large internal memory storage capacity and large integration of software and peripheral devices. Its working capacity and speed are very fast. Multiple people can perform different tasks on these systems simultaneously. For this, the Multix operating system was built in the Bell laboratory.
Use of Mainframe Computer – In the field of Banking, Research, Defence, Space etc.
Examples of Mainframe Computer- IBM-370, IBMS/390 and Unibac- 1110 etc.
2. Mini Computer:
They are much smaller in size than the mainframe. It has high storage capacity and speed. Multiple people can work on it simultaneously. By using the 80386 super chip, it turns into a super mini computer.
Use of Mini Computer – In company, passenger reservation, research etc.
Examples of Mini Computer – AS 400, BULL HN-DPX2, HP 9000 and RISC 6000.
3. Micro Computer:
Microprocessor is used as a processor in a microcomputer. In this, keyboard is used for input and monitor is used for viewing output. Its capacity is 1 lakh operations per second.
Use of Micro Computer- Commercially, in homes, in the field of entertainment, medicine etc.
Examples of Micro Computer- APPLE MAC, IMAC, IBM, PS / 2, IBM Compatible.
4. Personal Computer :
They are very small in size. It is a form of microcomputer. Only one user can work on it at a time. Its operating system can perform multiple tasks simultaneously. It can also be connected to the Internet. The name of the first computer manufactured in India is Siddhartha. Pacman was created for the famous computer game.
Use of Personal Computer – In homes, commercially, entertainment, data collection etc.
Examples of Personal Computer- Personal Computers from IBM, Compaq, Lenovo HP etc.
5. Laptop :
It works like a PC, but smaller than a PC in size and can be carried anywhere. CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and other drives are also combined in this. It also works with battery, so it can be used anywhere by taking it. Internet can also be accessed with the help of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
Examples of Laptops – Laptops of companies like IBM, Compaq, Apple, Lenovo etc.
It is a very small computer in size which is used by keeping it on the palm. It is also used in the form of input sound. It is also called PDA.
7. Super Computer:
It is the most powerful computer ever. The world’s first supercomputer was Cray-1 in 1976, which was developed by the Cray Research Company. It is the most successful supercomputer in history. India’s first supercomputer PARAM was developed by CDAC in 1991. Supercomputers are at the forefront of current processing capabilities, especially computational speed. In this, multi processing and parallel processing are used, by which any task is divided into pieces and many people can work simultaneously. It is used in animated graphics, nuclear research, etc. Pace series supercomputers were developed by DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) Hyderabad and Anupam series computers were developed by BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre).
Super computer examples
Example – CRAY-1
Computer History Pdf
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Today we have given you complete information about the history of computer, you have come to know about the development of computer in this article. If you have read the article properly, then you have come to know about the development of all the generations of computers and the improvements made in them and all the features of the present day computers. Do read our other articles. And share it with your friends.