What is computer?

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What is computer ?

Often people think that computer is like an almighty superman, but it is not so. It is just an automatic electronic machine which works at high speed and makes no mistake. Its capacity is limited. It is derived from the English word compute which means to calculate. In Hindi it is called computer. It is used to process and collect a lot of information. 

Computer is a device which receives data and processes it according to software or program to produce some result.

Computer is called artificial intelligence. Its memory power is higher than that of humans.

Elementary words relating to computer

  1. Data:  It is an unordered data or fact. This is the pre-process stage. Usually splits the data into two parts
    1. Numerical Data:  In this type of data, numbers from 0 to 9 are used, such as salary of employees, marks obtained in examination, census, roll number, arithmetic numbers etc.
    2. Alphanumeric Data:  In this type of data, numbers, letters and symbols are used, such as address etc.
  2. Information:  It is the result obtained after processing unorganized data which is organized.

Characteristics of Computer

  • It works at a fast speed, that is, time is saved.
  • It works flawlessly.
  • It features permanent and huge storage capacity.
  • It is capable of taking fast decisions according to pre-defined instructions.

Uses of Computer

  1. The field of education
  2. Scientific Research
  3. Railway and Airlines Reservation
  4. in the bank
  5. Medical Science
  6. The field of defense
  7. Publication
  8. Business
  9. Communication
  10. Administration
  11. Recreation

Functions of Computer

  1. Data Collection 
  2. Data Processing
  3. Data Storage
  4. Data Output

Data Processing & Electronic Data Processing

Before the creation of computers, the collection, storage, processing and output of data to achieve a certain goal was done by manual method, which was called data processing. As technology developed, computers were used for all these tasks. This is called electronic data processing (EDP).

The main goal of data processing is to get organized data from raw data. which is used for decision making.

Computer System

It is a group of devices that process data together. There are many units in a computer system which are used in electronic data processing.

Input Unit :

A unit that receives data from the user and transmits it to the central processing unit in the form of an electronic pulse. As in Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) when we go for withdrawal, we have to enter the PIN number (Personal Identification Number). The keypad is used as the input unit for that. 

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

It is also called processor. It is an electronic microchip that processes data by converting it into information. It is called the ‘brain of the computer’. It controls all the functions of the computer system and it converts inputs into outputs. It makes up the complete computer system consisting of input units and output units. It has the following parts. 

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit or ALU:  It is used in arithmetic and logical calculations. Arithmetic calculations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and logical calculations include comparative calculations such as (<, > or =), yes or no, etc.
  • Control Unit:  It controls all the functions of the computer, and all the parts of the computer like; Coordinates all the activities of input output devices, processors etc.
  • Memory Unit:  It is used to store data and instructions. It is mainly divided into two classes primary and secondary memory. When the computer is running, that is, the data and instructions currently in use are stored in the primary memory. Secondary memory is used to store data and instructions to be used later.

Output Unit :

An entity that takes data from the Central Processing Unit and makes it understandable to the user. As in, when we pay the bill in the supermarket, we get the receipt, which is a form of output. This output device is received from the printer.


Today we learned about computer, what is computer and how it works. We learned about its use. And we read some such definitions that we should know. If we want to do something in computer field. After reading this article, you must have learned a lot about computer. Do read our other articles. And do share this article.